KOLEKTIVNE ORGANIZACIJE – temeljno vprašanje

english below

Po trenutno veljavnem Zakonu o avtorskih in sorodnih pravicah je kolektivno upravljanje avtorskih pravic dopustno glede že objavljenih avtorskih del in je obvezno v naslednjih primerih: priobčitev javnosti neodrskih glasbenih in pisanih del (male pravice), ponovna prodaja izvirnikov likovnih del (sledna pravica), reproduciranje avtorskih del za privatno ali lastno uporabo, ter njihovo fotokopiranje prek obsega iz 50. člena tega zakona, kabelska retransmisija avtorskih del, razen pri lastnih oddajanjih RTV organizacij, ne glede na to, ali gre za njihove lastne pravice ali pa so te nanje prenesli drugi imetniki pravic.
Enostavno povedano ima zgornja določba praktične posledice v tem, da imajo kolektivne organizacije med drugim, pooblastilo za upravljanje z določenimi pravicami avtorjev tudi, če ti niso člani kolektivne organizacije in tudi če ti ne želijo, da kolektivna organizacija ali/in kdorkoli tretji upravlja z njihovimi avtorskimi pravicami. Primer obveznega kolektivnega upravljanja je, da je kolektivna organizacija SAZAS v imenu avtorjev pristojna za pobiranje prispevkov za javno priobčitev vse avtorske glasbe. Problematično je, da tako pobrani prispevki nikoli ne dosežejo avtorjev, ki niso člani in to tudi ne želijo postati. Resnici na ljubo, mnogo pobranih prispevkov ne doseže niti vseh članov SAZASa, vendar je to področje izven obsega problema, ki se ga lotevamo v tem vprašanju.
Primeri problematičnega obveznega kolektivnega upravljanja so, ko avtorji, ki niso član SAZASa svoja dela ponujajo na voljo pod CC licenco. Multimedijski center, ki organizira koncert, na katerem se predvajajo dela teh ustvarjalcev, SAZASu plačati nadomestilo za javno priobčitev, ker tako zahteva zakon. Drug, slikovit, a povsem realen primer je, ko mora Aktiv kmečkih žena ob dobrodelni prireditvi, ki jo organizirajo same z lastnimi sredstvi in na njej prepevajo pesmi avtorjev, med njimi tudi takšnih, ki niso živi že več kot 70 let, za to plačati prispevke SAZASu. Ali pa neprofitna prireditev, nakateri partizanski pevski zbor poje avtorske pesmi in zanje SAZAS pobere nadomestila. Takšen primer je tudi naš projekt radioCona – gre za umetniški projekt, za občasno radijsko postajo za sodobno umetnost. Predvajati bi želeli izključno glasbo avtorjev, ki svoja dela objavljajo pod odprtimi licencami, najpogosteje pod licencami Creative Commons in niso člani SAZAS, ali glasbo ustvarjalcev, ki so člani SAZASa, vendar nam bi podelili izrecno dovoljenje za predvajanje nsvojih del v projektu RadiuCona.
Ali bi morali kljub temu v skladu s trenutno zakonodajo, plačati nadomestila SAZASu? V obeh primerih?
Kakšno je vaše mnenje? Ali menite, da je obstoječa zakonodaja, ki omogoča kolektivni organizaciji kot je SAZAS takšno vrhovno upravljanje z avtorsko glasbo optimalna ali bi bile potrebne spremembe? Kakšne?

According to the existing Copyright and Neighbouring Rights Law, the collective management of copyright is permitted for the already released copyright works and is obligatory in the following instances: presentation of non-staged and written work (small rights), re-selling of original works of graphic and plastic art (resale right), reproduction of copyright works for private or own use, and their multiplication over the extent stated in Article 50 of this law, cable transmission of copyright works, except for own broadcasts of National Television Network organizations, irrespective of whether their own rights are in question or have the rights been turned over to them by other rights holders.
To put it simply, the practical consequence of the mentioned provision is that collective organizations are, among other things, empowered to manage certain rights of authors also when the authors are not members of the collective organization and even when they do not want that either the collective organization or some other party manage their copyrights. Such an example of obligatory collective management is when the collective organization SAZAS is competent to collect royalties in the name of the authors for public presentation of all copyright music. It is a grave problem that these contributions never reach those authors who are not their members and do not wish to become ones. Frankly, a great number of royalties do not even get into the hands of authors who are members of Society SAZAS, but this issue goes beyond the scope of the problem in question.
A case of problematic obligatory collective management is, for example, when the authors who are not members of SAZAS make their work available under the CC license. A multimedia centre that organizes a concert with the works of such authors has to pay royalties for public presentation, since this is required by the law. Another, vivid yet entirely realistic case is when a Country Women Association has to pay royalties to Society SAZAS for a charity concert, which they organize on their own and where they sing the songs of authors who have been dead for over seventy years. Or, a nonprofit event, where a partisan choir sings copyright songs and Society SAZAS collects the money. Such case is also the case of our art project radioZone – a temporary radio station for contemporary art. Our aim is to broadcast exclusively the music of authors who release their work under open licenses, most frequently under a Creative Commons license and are not members of SAZAS, or the music of authors who are Society SAZAS’ members but would give us their permission for broadcasting their work in the frame of the project radioZone.
Should we still pay royalties to Society SAZAS, which would mean compliance with the existing legislation? In both cases?
What is your opinion? Do you think that the existing legislation, providing a collective organization such as SAZAS such supreme management with authorial music, is optimal, or can something be done with regard to these issues? Which changes are in your opinion needed?




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